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Go to the next level up (Getting Ready for the Test). See that 'Make a New Thread' link? I bet you can figure it out from here.

When you make a new thread, please give it a good title and a descriptive summary. Also, you must enter something in the body of the thread for it to save.

Have fun - but not too much fun.

How to make a thread by mcourtneymcourtney, 25 Mar 2008 16:34

Click here for a pdf version of 'Taking an Essay Test'

Taking an Essay Test by mcourtneymcourtney, 14 Mar 2008 13:21

Click here for a PDF version of 'Taking a Multiple Choice Test'

Essay Test Terms
mcourtneymcourtney 14 Mar 2008 13:10
in discussion AP Biology / Tips » Essay Test Terms
Examine qualities, or characteristics, to discover resemblances. "Compare" is usually stated as "compare with": you are to emphasize similarities, although differences may be mentioned.
Stress dissimilarities, differences, or unlikeness of things, qualities, events, or problems.
Express your judgment or correctness or merit. Discuss the limitations and good points or contributions of the plan or work in question.
Definitions call for concise, clear, authoritative meanings. Details are not required but limitations of the definition should be briefly cited. You must keep in mind the class to which a thing belongs and whatever differentiates the particular object from all others in the class.
In a descriptive answer you should recount, characterize, sketch or relate in narrative form.
For a question which specifies a diagram you should present a drawing, chart, plan, or graphic representation in your answer. Generally you are expected to label the diagram and in some cases add a brief explanation or description.
The term discuss, which appears often in essay questions, directs you to examine, analyze carefully, and present considerations pro and con regarding the problems or items involved. This type of question calls for a complete and entailed answer.
The word enumerate specifies a list or outline form of reply. In such questions you should recount, one by one, in concise form, the points required.
In an evaluation question you are expected to present a careful appraisal of the problem stressing both advantages and limitations. Evaluation implies authoritative and, to a lesser degree, personal appraisal of both contributions and limitations.
In explanatory answers it is imperative that you clarify and interpret the material you present. In such an answer it is best to state the "how or why," reconcile any differences in opinion or experimental results, and, where possible, state causes. The aim is to make plain the conditions which give rise to whatever you are examining.
A question which asks you to illustrate usually requires you to explain or clarify your answer to the problem by presenting a figure, picture, diagram, or concrete example.
An interpretation question is similar to one requiring explanation. You are expected to translate, exemplify, solve, or comment upon the subject and usually to give your judgment or reaction to the problem.
When you are instructed to justify your answer you must prove or show grounds for decisions. In such an answer, evidence should be presented in convincing form.
Listing is similar to enumeration. You are expected in such questions to present an itemized series or tabulation. Such answers should always be given in concise form.
An outline answer is organized description. You should give main points and essential supplementary materials, omitting minor details, and present the information in a systematic arrangement or classification.
A question which requires proof is one which demands confirmation or verification. In such discussions you should establish something with certainty by evaluating and citing experimental evidence or by logical reasoning.
In a question which asks you to show the relationship or to relate, your answer should emphasize connections and associations in descriptive form.
A review specifies a critical examination. You should analyze and comment briefly in organized sequence upon the major points of the problem.
In questions which direct you to specify, give, state, or present, you are called upon to express the high points in brief, clear narrative form. Details, and usually illustrations or examples, may be omitted.
When you are asked to summarize or present a summarization, you should give in condensed form the main points or facts. All details, illustrations and elaboration are to be omitted.
When a question asks you to trace a course of events, you are to give a description of progress, historical sequence, or development from the point of origin. Such narratives may call for probing or for deduction.
Essay Test Terms by mcourtneymcourtney, 14 Mar 2008 13:10

Are you implying that your wise, benevolent, and all-knowing teacher could ever make a mistake? Child, where is the evidence of such a lapse? ;-)

Re: Chapter 22 Cloze Notes by mcourtneymcourtney, 14 Mar 2008 13:05
Re: Chapter 22 Cloze Notes by ARCARC, 14 Mar 2008 02:33

Click here to view a transcript of the podcast.

Podcast Transcript by mcourtneymcourtney, 05 Mar 2008 11:25
Chapter 22 Activities by mcourtneymcourtney, 05 Mar 2008 11:12
Charles Darwin Research Station, Galápagos
Research scientists from around the world visit the Charles Darwin Research Station to perform research in a wide variety of areas, such as evolutionary biology, geology, ecotourism, climatology, and population genetics.
Online Literature Library: Charles Darwin
You can read the complete texts of Darwin's The Descent of Man, The Voyage of the Beagle, and The Origin of Species.
UCMP Exhibit Halls: Evolution Entrance
The University of California Museum of Paleontology site is one of the most understandable and comprehensive on evolution and diversity. This first link presents the theory of evolution and short, readable, elementary biographies of 20 or so individuals, including Erasmus and Charles Darwin, Lamarck, Cuvier, and Wallace. Useful for historical background, with portraits and Web links provided.
Learning from the Fossil Record
This minisite is a nice primer for understanding fossils and paleontology.
Paleontology Without Walls
Your visit to The University of California Museum of Paleontology online exhibit will enable you to explore phylogeny (the family of life), the geologic time of the organisms that lived, and the evolutionary thought of the various scientists that developed the theory of evolution. Extensive information is tucked away in each of the links on each of the well-designed pages.
The Talk.Origins Archive
Talk.Origins is a usenet newsgroup devoted to the debate on biological and physical origins. Discussions at this interesting site mainly center on the creation/evolution controversy. It is definitely pro-evolution but does offer information from both perspectives. The information contained here is not always scientifically valid, but it is all part of the debate.
Five Major Misconceptions about Evolution (and a Rebuttal)
This FAQ of the Talk.Origins Archive lists what many evolutionists believe to be the five most common misconceptions about evolution. There is also a link to a creationist rebuttal. This is an excellent place to begin to understand the debate.
Galápagos Conservation Trust
The Galápagos Conservation Trust is affiliated with the Charles Darwin Foundation, which operates the Charles Darwin Research Station on the Galápagos island of Santa Cruz.
Principia Cybernetica: Evolutionary Theory
This interesting site examines the philosophy of evolutionary systems. Of particular interest are the meticulous definitions of much of the terminology associated with evolution and evolutionary theory.
Teaching about Evolution and the Nature of Science
This is an excellent resource for teachers of evolution. It includes an analysis of why evolution should be taught and a list of classroom activities. Each activity is designed to take students through steps in scientific inquiry: engage (start), explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate. Critical thinking skills can be acquired in these exercises.
The C. Warren Irvin, Jr., Collection of Charles Darwin and Darwiniana
This unique and interesting collection from the University of South Carolina has been formed to carefully reflect Darwin's writings and interests and to place them in context with those of his peers and predecessors.
Tree of Life
David and Wayne Maddison sponsor this site at the University of Arizona. It aspires to show the phylogeny of all life (or as much of life as possible), but it is as yet very incomplete. The phylogenies of individual taxa are added from time to time by expert contributors. From the root page, you can follow the tree of life by clicking on taxonomic names (there is no information for the other names). The site also includes references, Web links, and illustrations for some taxa.
The Fish out of Time
This website, run by the Coelacanth Rescue Mission, is a comprehensive archive of information on the coelacanth, the only extant member of the lobe-finned fishes. The coelacanth, a 400-million-year-old "living fossil," appears to have four legs. Once thought to have gone extinct with the dinosaurs, it was discovered 60 years ago.
Which Embryo Is Human?
A demonstration of embryological homologies. Can you distinguish among fish, chicken, dog, lizard, and human embryos?
Evidences for Evolution
Test your knowledge of the evidence of evolution by playing concentration, word search, or a matching game.
Evolution and Natural Selection
Lecture outlines that explain, with examples, the process of natural selection and the different modes of natural selection. When you are confident of your mastery of this material, you can take a self-quiz.
Chapter 22 Useful Websites by mcourtneymcourtney, 05 Mar 2008 11:11
Artificial Selection
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits.
The study of the past and present distribution of species.
The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that had destroyed many of the species living there at that time.
Descent with Modification
Darwin’s initial phrase for the general process of evolution.
All the changes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today.
Evolutionary Adapation
An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms’ ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments.
A preserved remnant or impression of an organism that lived in the past.
A view of Earth’s history that attributes profound change to the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes.
Homologous Structures
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry.
Natural Selection
Differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment. Evolution occurs when natural selection causes changes in relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool.
The scientific study of fossils.
Sedimentary Rock
Rock formed from sand and mud that once settled in layers on the bottom of seas, lakes, and marshes. Sedimentary rocks are often rich in fossils.
A set of characteristics used to assess the similarities and differences between various species, leading to a classification scheme; the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
Charles Lyell’s idea that geologic processes have not changed throughout Earth’s history.
Vestigial Organ
A structure of marginal, if any, importance to an organism. Vestigial organs are historical remnants of structures that had important functions in ancestors.
Chapter 22 Vocabulary by mcourtneymcourtney, 05 Mar 2008 11:10
Chapter 22 Vocabulary Games by mcourtneymcourtney, 05 Mar 2008 11:09

The Historical Context for Evolutionary Theory

  1. Explain the mechanism for evolutionary change proposed by Charles Darwin in On the Origin of Species.
  2. Define evolution and adaptation.
  3. Compare and contrast Aristotle’s scala naturae to Carolus Linnaeus’ classification scheme.
  4. Describe the theories of catastrophism, gradualism, and uniformitarianism.
  5. Explain the mechanism for evolutionary change proposed by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck. Explain why modern biology has rejected Lamarck’s theories.

The Darwinian Revolution

  1. Describe how Darwin’s observations on the voyage of the HMS Beagle led him to formulate and support his theory of evolution.
  2. Explain how the principle of gradualism and Charles Lyell’s theory of uniformitarianism influenced Darwin’s ideas about evolution.
  3. Explain what Darwin meant by “descent with modification.”
  4. Explain what evidence convinced Darwin that species change over time.
  5. Explain how Linnaeus’ classification scheme fit Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.
  6. Describe the three inferences Darwin made from his observations that led him to propose natural selection as a mechanism for evolutionary change.
  7. Explain how an essay by the Rev. Thomas Malthus influenced Charles Darwin.
  8. Distinguish between artificial selection and natural selection.
  9. Explain why an individual organism cannot evolve.
  10. Describe the experiments that supported Reznick and Endler’s hypothesis that differences in life-history traits between guppy populations are due to selective pressure based on predation.
  11. Explain how the existence of homologous and vestigial structures can be explained by Darwin’s theory of natural selection.
  12. Explain how evidence from biogeography supports the theory of evolution by natural selection.
  13. Explain the problem with the statement that Darwinism is “just a theory.” Distinguish between the scientific and colloquial use of the word theory.
Chapter 22 Guiding Questions by mcourtneymcourtney, 05 Mar 2008 11:09

Click here for a PDF copy of the Chapter 22 Cloze Notes

Chapter 22 Cloze Notes by mcourtneymcourtney, 05 Mar 2008 11:08

Click here to view a PDF file of the example lab report.

Sample Lab Writeup by mcourtneymcourtney, 05 Mar 2008 10:48

Lab 6a6a, Bacterial Transformation is explained in this series of demonstrations

Lab Bench by mcourtneymcourtney, 26 Feb 2008 15:32

Concept 21.1 Embryonic development involves cell division, cell differentiation, and morphogenesis

Concept 21.2 Different cell types result from differential gene expression in cells with the same DNA

Concept 21.3 Pattern formation in animals and plants results from similar genetic and cellular mechanisms

Chapter 21 Activities by mcourtneymcourtney, 18 Feb 2008 14:18
Cloning: A Special Report from the New Scientist
The New Scientist put together a special report on cloning after the report of the first mammal ever created from the non-reproductive tissue of an adult animal was published in Nature. This report has links to the original paper in Nature, to further commentary in Nature and to the website of the lab that made the breakthrough.
Developmental Biology-24 Hour Chick
These serial sections allow for the study of the microscopic anatomy of the embryo, in particular, the internal anatomy. Many features that are not evident in the study of the whole embryo can be examined by viewing a sequence of sections of the embryo. The embryo from which the accompanying photomicrographs were taken consisted of 240 sections. This material is good for advanced students and for student projects. The abundance of graphics aid in the presentation.
The Virtual Embryo
This richly illustrated site provides detailed descriptions of development in a number of model organisms including C. elegans, Xenopus, and Danio rerio.
The Embryonic Zoo
An impressive page of movies and links to other embryological resources.
Virtual World of Development
Designed as a supplement to lectures in developmental biology, this tutorial introduces students to dynamic aspects of embryonic development through diagrams, micrographs, and movies. It covers such topics as fertilization, gastrulation, and the development of a number of important animals, including frogs, fish, flies, and folks. The site is well laid out and nicely done, but plant development is not discussed.
Dynamic Development-An Overview of Amphibian Development
This Amphibian Embryology Tutorial is a Virtual Embryo Resource and uses text, images, and movies to examine developmental processes. Oogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation (in great detail), and neurulation are explored using the tools of the Internet. This tutorial is dynamic and successfully shows how genetics regulates development, how a multicellular organism organizes from individual cells, and how cell diversity is generated during development. This Online activity will also help you understand the spatial relationships of cells during development that allows for extension of traditional textbook material.
Morphing Embryos
Originally shown on the "Nova" TV series, PBS has put online these amazing time-lapse sequences of developing embryos from several animal species. Choice of VivoActive, QuickTime or AVI formats.
Stages of Embryonic Development of the Zebrafish
Are you interested in viewing clear images of a developing vertebrate? The stages for development of the zebrafish (Danio (Brachydanio) reri) embryo are described in five periods of embryogenesis: the zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, pharyngula, and hatching periods and occur over a short period of time. This site gives full descriptions and fully utilizes the optical transparency of the live embryo. It is also possible to view the deep structures of the embryo. You will use photomicrographs to analyze most stages, and text descriptions will assist in your analysis. You will have a guided tour of zebrafish development when you visit this site.
The Fish Net
The zebra fish, Danio rerio, is one of the model organisms used by developmental biologists. This site provides access to all zebra fish databases.
The Society for Developmental Biology
The home page of the Society for Developmental Biology provides information on many aspects of developmental biology. The "Interactive Fly" and the "Developmental Biology Cinema" are well worth a visit. The education page is a great place to begin a search for student activities on the Web. The site has links to developmental biology tutorials, teaching lab exercises, an interactive feature called "Ask a Developmental Biology Question," sample exam questions, and even hints to jazz up lectures. The Society for Developmental Biology intends this site to be of use to teachers and students from K-college. This is really the first place to shop for student-relevant information on developmental biology.
USDA Nematology Lab Homepage
Nematodes are important agriculturally both as plant parasites and as beneficial organisms in insect control. Find out more at the U. S. Department of Agriculture's nematode page.
Whole Frog Project
This site contains links to several active research labs in developmental biology. Sites are categorized by focus on such topics as: Gametogenesis and Fertilization; Early Development; Organogenesis and Morphogenesis; Pattern Formation; Gene Regulation and Genetics; Cell Lineage and Fate Maps; and Evolution and Development. Students accessing this information will be able to see what some of the major labs in developmental biology are studying. Instructors will find it a useful source of images for lectures and labs.
Regulation of Embryonic Development
Read about Nobel laureates Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, and Eric Wieschaus and their work on fruit fly development.
J. Kimball provides a brief, easy-to-understand explanation of programmed cell death.
Developmental Mechanism Problem Set
Another one of those nice autotutorial programs from the University of Arizona.
The Visible Embryo
Human development from conception to birth.
Chapter 21 Useful Websites by mcourtneymcourtney, 18 Feb 2008 14:17
Apical Meristem
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
The changes that occur within a cell as it undergoes programmed cell death, which is brought about by signals that trigger the activation of a cascade of suicide proteins in the cell destined to die.
Cell Differentiation
The structural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during a multicellular organism’s development; dependent on the control of gene expression.
Cell Lineage
The ancestry of a cell.
An organism with a mixture of genetically different cells.
(1) A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells. (2) In popular usage, a single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual. (3) As a verb, to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell.
Using a somatic cell from a multicellular organism to make one or more genetically identical individuals.
Cytoplasmic Determinants
The maternal substances in the egg that influence the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate of cells.
The progressive restriction of developmental potential, causing the possible fate of each cell to become more limited as the embryo develops.
Egg-Polarity Gene
Another name for a maternal effect gene, a gene that helps control the orientation (polarity) of the egg.
Embryonic Lethal
A mutation with a phenotype leading to death at the embryo or larval stage.
A 180-nucleotide sequence within homeotic genes and some other developmental genes that is widely conserved in animals. Related sequences occur in plants and prokaryotes.
Homeotic Gene
Any of the genes that control the overall body plan of animals and plants by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.
The ability of one group of embryonic cells to influence the development of another.
Maternal Effect Gene
A gene that, when mutant in the mother, results in a mutant phenotype in the offspring, regardless of the genotype.
Model Organism
An organism chosen to study broad biological principles.
A substance, such as Bicoid protein, that provides positional information in the form of a concentration gradient along an embryonic axis.
The development of body shape and organization.
Organ Identity Genes
Plant homeotic genes that use positional information to determine which emerging leaves develop into which types of floral organs.
Pattern Formation
The ordering of cells into specific three-dimensional structures, an essential part of shaping an organism and its individual parts during development.
Describing a stem cell, from an embryo or adult organism, that can give rise to multiple but not all differentiated cell types.
Positional Information
Signals to which genes regulating development respond, indicating a cell’s location relative to other cells in an embryonic structure.
Segmentation Gene
A gene of the embryo that directs the actual formation of segments after the embryo’s axes are defined.
Stem Cell
Any relatively unspecialized cell that can divide during a single division into one identical daughter cell and one more specialized daughter cell, which can undergo further differentiation.
Describing a cell that can give rise to all parts of an organism.
Chapter 21 Vocabulary by mcourtneymcourtney, 18 Feb 2008 14:16
Chapter 21 Vocabulary Games by mcourtneymcourtney, 18 Feb 2008 14:15

From Single Cell to Multicellular Organism

  1. List the animals used as models for developmental biology research and provide a rationale for their choice.
  2. Distinguish between the patterns of morphogenesis in plants and in animals.

Differential Gene Expression

  1. Describe how genomic equivalence was determined for plants and animals.
  2. Describe what kinds of changes occur to the genome during differentiation.
  3. Describe the general process by which the ewe Dolly and the first mice were cloned.
  4. Describe the characteristics of stem cells. Explain their significance to medicine.
  5. Distinguish between determination and differentiation. Explain why determination precedes differentiation.
  6. Describe the molecular basis of determination.
  7. Describe the two sources of information that instruct a cell to express genes at the appropriate time.

Genetic and Cellular Mechanisms of Pattern Formation

  1. Describe how Drosophila was used to investigate the basic aspects of pattern formation (axis formation and segmentation).
  2. Explain how maternal genes affect polarity and development in Drosophila embryos.
  3. Describe how gradients of morphogens may specify the axes of developing Drosophila embryos.
  4. Describe how homeotic genes define the anatomical identity of the segments of a developing organism.
  5. Describe how the study of nematodes contributed to an understanding of the role of induction in development.
  6. Describe how apoptosis functions in normal and abnormal development.
  7. Describe how the study of tomatoes has contributed to the understanding of flower development.
  8. Describe how the study of Arabidopsis has contributed to the understanding of organ identity in plants.
  9. Provide evidence of the conservation of homeobox patterns.
Chapter 21 Guiding Questions by mcourtneymcourtney, 18 Feb 2008 14:15
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